IMPROVE ACHIEVEMENT AND PREVENT NEGATIVE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AMONG STUDENTS THROUGH DEVELOPING OF PERSPECTIVE TAKING SKILLS

Sep 27,2017

Optimize Student's Development Through The Implementation of Perspective-Taking Skills Development Program

Eko Darminto1, Johana E. Prawitasari2, Danny M. Handarini3, Adi Atmoko3

1)Doctoral Student at Program S3 BK UM, Malang / Lecturer of BK Unesa, Surabaya, Indonesia

2Promotor/ Lecturer of UKRIDA, Jakarta, Indonesia

3Co-Promotor/ Lecturer of BK UM, Malang, Indonesia

Email: edmartowijoyo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This paper presenting a conceptual idea of optimizes student's development through implementation of the program of perspective taking skill development. The goal of school guidance and counseling program is to help each students to achieve optimal development and this program is an alternative effort to achieve these goal. This idea based on four reasons. First, the primer function of school guidance is giving services in order to help every student will attain optimum development in academic, personal, social, and career. Second, various case of failures and negative behaviors observed on students indicated that much of student don't develop in optimum. Third, theoretically, perspective taking contain psychological dimensions which enabling individual to be more success to achieve development in academic, personal, social, and career. Much of research has also asserted that perspective taking influence individual's positive behavior and their development, in which student's behavior and development correlate with their level of the perspective taking. Four, optimize student's developmental through developing of student's perspective taking not yet used as a strategy in the context of school guidance and counseling in Indonesia. Particularly, this paper present a concept, theory, and research result on perspective taking and the hypothesis on the relationship between perspective taking and student‘s development.

Keywords

Perspective taking, student's optimum development, guidance and counseling

I. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rationale

In the school system in Indonesian, guidance and counseling are an integral parts of the total education program. School counselor as a major personnel of guidance and counseling, have a great responsibility to design and implement guidance and counseling program to helping students attain a level of optimum development and success in their life. In the recent, operationally program design of guidance and counseling and its implementation refers to Peraturan Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia No. 111 years 2014 on guidance and counseling in the primary and secondary school [23]. This program contains sequential activities of guidance and counseling that provides all students opportunities developmental and experiences in meeting four crucial student's development needs: personal, social, academic, and career. The students will attain an optimum development if they can satisfy that four developmental needs. This program organize the work of counselors into four major components: basic service or guidance curriculum, individual planning service, responsive service, and system support. Ideally, this program is implemented by the certified school counselor with the support of the teachers, administrators, students, and parents, and community as referral resources.

This time, the school guidance and counseling services indicated not optimal in helping learners achieve optimal development at least this is seen from the various forms of deviant behavior appearance by some of students. As it is publicized by mass media, many students which express negative or deviant behavior such as: using maladaptive effort to achieve academic achievement, or meeting personal needs in a way that is not accountable through various forms of violence against other people. As we all know that our education we are currently attempting to solve some problems related to the maladaptive behavior of students. Among the negative behavior that seen is a tendency to impose the will protrude through the violence as well as the effort to reach achievement in an irresponsible way, such as cheating, stealing, and plagiarizing. Additionally, in the current, effort to prevent violence and improve student's academic performance is becoming a necessity felt by many parties.

Various forms of negative behavior can be caused by many factors and one of them is the inability to satisfy the needs of development and the individual does not develop optimally. This has been stated by a scientist in human development, Laurence Steinberg [41] that the various forms of behavioral disorders can be caused by many factors, one of which is the failure of the individual to meet the needs of development or because individuals experiencing barriers to fulfilling the tasks of development. Of course, this phenomenon has implications for the development of guidance and counseling program. School counselors need to find the alternative or new methods for making the guidance and counseling services be more effective to help students achieve their optimal development.School guidance and counseling as a part of educational system certainly have a responsibility to solve that problem, especially to helping students being success in their learning and live. In other word, the problems related student's behavior indicates that the student don't develop optimally and it has a direct implications for developing guidance programs that more effective to prevent negative behavior and to encourage the success of the students. Encourage the optimum development of learners through increase their perspective-taking ability is based on the following framework.

Efforts of guidance and counseling to help the students to achieve the optimal development can be done through a many of strategies, one of which is to improve the live skills of learners. In this context, the development of the perspective taking skills can be used as an alternative approach. This ability is a psychological construct that has a lot of therapeutic value in order to encourage success in achieving the developmental tasks. Many experts put the ability to take another person's perspective as one aspect of social skills. Ellen Galinsky [10], a scientist in education, recognize this ability as one of live skill, which have some therapeutic value to influence the development of the individual and that currently has not got the attention of school counselors. Many experts have stated and some research has shown that this ability can support individuals in meeting the needs of personal, social, academic, and career.

Epley [7] and Schroder-Abe & Schultz [38] assert that perspective-taking ability has long been recognized by psychologists and educators as a fundamental aspect of social competence in social or human interaction. According to them, human interaction will be more effective when individual understand the perspective of others with whom he or she interacted and thus correctly anticipate others behavior and modify their own accordingly. In an interaction, for examples, individual with high perspective-taking ability more enable to understand what think, feel, and want of other and then make a response or adapting their responses to adequately meet the need of others or by avoiding behaviors that may be perceived as inappropriate by others. They enable to relate to the interests, needs, and rights of others and free himself from egocentric behavior. Individuals with a high perspective-taking ability not only succeeded in establishing the social relationship but also in meeting personal and other's needs. In general, inherent in the perspective-taking skills are many significant interpersonal values, including empathy for others, respect to differences individual and realities, tolerance to ambiguity, objective, flexible, and nonjudgmental attitide.

Why is the ability to take the perspective of others may encourage optimal development? Individuals ten achieve optimal development if they can meet their needs and can deal with conflict in interaction with others. In order to meet their needs, the individual should relate to others effectively. To be able to relate to others effectively, the individual must be able to understand others and be able to adjust their behavior with other people's psychological condition and can handle the conflicts that arise in the interaction. In other words, the individual should be able to take the perspective of others.

The research on perspective taking has covered a wide range of it's influence on some behavior variable. Accoeding to Laurence [24] many researchers have also found a great deal of evidence that supporting the benefits of developing perspective taking skills and using them in our social interactions for some purpose. Inherent in perspective taking are many significant interpersonal values, including respect for different realities, appreciation for individual differences, objectivity, flexibility, tolerance of ambiguity, and nonjudgmental attitude. Many studies have proved that perspective-taking ability is positively correlated with the ability of conflict resolution, psychological healthy, prosocial behavior, organizational behavior, individual development, academic performance, and negatively correlation with various kind of psychosocial problems especially aggression or violence [12; 13; 32].

The influence of perspective taking on the individual development has also clearly depicted by Moll & Meltzoff [30]. They promoted that the previous studies in the field of developmental psychology also proves that perspective taking skills plays a fundamental role in the development, in the sense that human development in various domains (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) goes forward in accordance with the individual's ability to take another person's perspective. Therefore individual with high perspective-taking tend to more easily meet their needs and then attain optimum development rather than individual with poor perspective taking ability. Then, developing perspective taking skills among students will prevent they to forming negative behaviors and encourage success in various of development task and life, i.e.: personal, social, academic, and career. Developing perspective taking skills will have a positive impact on the ability of learners to satisfy their needs and finally achieve optimum development.

Developing the perspective taking skill is not a futile effort because this ability is a potential that can be learned. Some experts in this field i.e Selman [34], Galinsky [10], Gehlbach [12] have confirmed that this ability can be developed through experience, guidance, and training. Although the development of this ability is heavily influenced by the development of cognitive abilities, cognitive barriers can be minimized through the provision of good experience, teaching, and guidance. This ability develops gradually starting from the age of six years and become mature when the individual entered the early adolescent, ie at the age of about ten years (Selman, 1980). Based on the positive value in the perspective taking and its impact on development, school counselor need to incorporates the program of developing perspective taking into the program os school guidance and counseling to optimize the student’s development.

1.2 Objective

This paper is intended to presenting a conceptual study on the possibility of implementing a program of perspective-taking skills development in the school setting as a part of the school guidance and counseling program in order to foster the optimal development of the students. The discussion preceded by an understanding of the concept of guidance and counseling in Indonesia in the current followed by the concept of perspective-taking and the theory and the results of research that has been done, the discussion about developing a program implementation perspective-taking, and the conclussion.

II. STUDY OF LITERATURE

2.1 Concept of Guidance and Counseling in Indonesia

Conceptually guidance and counseling in Indonesia following the concept of guidance and counseling in general which stating that guidance and counseling is a process to help students deal with the difficulties in solving the problems it faces and achieve optimal development.

The developmental approach to school guidance and counseling is based on the works of developmental theorists that recognizes that all students move in a sequential manner toward self-understanding and self-enhancement. This approach is founded on the belief that individuals experience general stages of academic, career and personal/social growth and that school guidance and counseling programs must be structured to anticipate and fulfill those needs.

In particular, the practice of guidance and counseling in Indonesia today use development approach, an approach known as comprehensive development of guidance and counseling. Operationally, the implementation of a developmentally comprehensive guidance and counseling is stipulated in the Regulation of the Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 111 Years 2014 on Guidance and Counseling in Primary and Secondary Education level [23]. In the regulation stated that the Guidance and Counseling is a systematic effort, objective, logical, sustainable and programmed. This effort is conducted by school counselors to facilitate the development of learners achieve and independence in their lives (article 1). Such efforts are prevention, mitigation / improvement, and development (Article 2). The goal of guidance and counseling is to help learners achieve optimal development and independence in personal, learning, social and career aspect (article 3). Guidance and counseling services are provided through four program components: basic services, individual planning, responsive services, and support services system to support the development of personal, social, learning, and career (article 6). Based on this program, the components of guidance and counseling services address to four areas of student's development, i.e: personal, academic, social, and career services.

The school counselor helping students to realize their potential for healthy growth in three broad areas of development: academic, career and personal/social . This is the core of the content for the comprehen­sive developmental guidance and counseling in Indonesia. The following are the competencies that should be developed by a school counselor from each aspect of these developments:

Personal/social development: goals of guidance program is to provide the foundation for personal and social growth as students progress through school and into adulthood. Personal/social develop­ment contributes to academic and career success by helping students understand and respect themselves and others, acquire effective interpersonal skills, understand safety and survival skills and develop into contributing members of society.

Academic development : the goal of guidance program is to help students acquiring skills, attitudes and knowledge that contribute to effective learning in school; employing strategies to achieve success in school; and understanding the relationship of academics to the world of work, and to life at home and in the community. Academic goals support the premise that all students should meet or exceed the local, state and national goals.

Career development: the goal of guidance program is to provide the foundation for the acqui­sition of skills, attitudes, and knowledge that enable students to make a successful transition from school to the world of work and from job to job across the life span. Career development goals and competencies ensure that students develop career goals as a result of their participation in a comprehensive plan of career awareness, explo­ration and preparation activities.

Based on the legislation can be understood that the practice of guidance and counseling services in Indonesia today use development approach. In this approach, guidance and counseling services geared to helping learners achieve optimal development in four aspects of development: personal, social, academic and career. Guidance services are organized into four areas of program components, namely: basic services, services individual planning, responsive services and support systems. Service can be preventative, remedial/healing, and development.

2.2 Concept of Optimum Development

The concept of optimal development is commonly used to designate the development of the personal aspects of the individual in the highest degree according to their own potential. Because the criteria for optimal development is the individual's potential, the optimization of the individual can not be equated with optimization of other individuals. Each individual is born with the potential of their own.

The concept of optimum development can be found in the theory of humanistic psychology of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. In Maslow's theory, the optimum development can be identified with the state of self-actualization. Therefore, the individual is said to achieve optimal development if it can actualize himself, in the sense actualize all its potential. Almost the same as Maslow, Rogers defines the optimal development as a state to actualize or realize the full potential at the highest level. Rogers also uses the term fully functioning person to declare individuals actualize himself .

In the context of a comprehensive developmental guidance and counseling, the concept of optimal development in general also refers to the concept of Rogers and Maslow. In particular, optimal development is measured based on the achievement of developmental tasks in the aspect of personal, social, academic, and career. Referring to some guidelines in the implementation of the developmental guidance and counseling in all regions of America, for example, expressed in A Guide to Comprehensive School Counseling Program Development South Caroline, the characteristics of the optimal development of learners at the level of primary and secondary education is as follows :

Personal/social development: (1) students will acquire the attitudes, knowledge and interpersonal skills to help them understand and respect self and others; (2) students will make decisions, set goals and take necessary action to achieve goals; and (3) students will understand safety and survival skills.

Academic development : (1) students will acquire the attitudes, knowledge, and skills that contribute to effective learning in school and across the life span; (2) students will complete school with the academic preparation essential to choose from a wide range of substantial post-secondary options, including college; (3) students will understand the relationship of academics to the world of work and to life at home and in the community.

Career development: (1) students will acquire the skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make 4. informed career decisions; (2) students will employ strategies to achieve future career success and satisfaction; (3) students will understand the relationship between personal qualities, education and training and the world of 6. work.

2.3 Concept of Perspective Taking

2.3.1 Definition

In the literature, perspective taking also known as "role taking" or "Social perspective taking." Some literature has proposed the definition of perspective-taking with variations according to the viewpoint or theory used by the author. Here are some definitions of perspective taking that have been raised by several experts in the field of perspective-taking were cited in the literature.

A simple definition stating perspective-taking as the ability to see things from the viewpoint of others, or see the reality from the eyes of others [Galinsky, 10], the ability to understand and incorporate the perspective of yourself alone with another person's perspective [Chadwick & Ralston, 3], the ability to imagine the world from the perspective of another person, or imagine themselves into other people [Epley & Caruso, 8], as the ability to enter the minds of others (step into the other's shoes) [Gelbach, 12]. Stemming largely from the literature, perspective taking reflects an ability to take another person's point of view and accurately infer the thoughts and feelings of others.

Selman [34] and Schultz & Selman [37] define perspective taking as the ability for differentiating and coordinate the perspective of oneself with another person's perspective (multiple perspectives). While Trotschel et al [42] defines the perspective-taking as a form of understanding of another person's mental condition, which includes thoughts, feelings, desires, motivations, and goals. This understanding is then used to for the purpose of understanding the behavior of others, to predict what will be said or done by others, and think about and shape the behavior to fit the mental state of others. So, perspective taking allows individuals to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others. Based on this understanding, Trotschel et al. [42] view perspective-taking as a cognitive mindset. In describing perspective taking, Moskowitz says: "We must be able to stand in the shoes of others, see the world through their eyes, emphatize with what they are feelings, and attempt to think and react to the world in the same way that they think and react to the world" [42:277].

A more recent definition combines cognitive and affective components. For example, Roan et al. [32] define perspective taking as a skill that requires a combination of cognitive abilities and affective/emotional and inclination or motivation to perform an action. It contains the ability/strategies to envision (suspect) other's perception or of what is others feeling and thinking about a situation. According to Roan et al., the processes involved in the perspective taking are under conscious control and thus can be modified through awareness and training.

Based on some definition of perspective-taking can conclude that it contains some elements of ability as follows: (1) recognize that different people can have views, feelings, interests, and different attitudes toward the same situation or event; (2) be able to perceive the thoughts, feelings, interests, and attitudes of others in responding to a situation; (3) can predict what is likely to be said or done by others; and (5) can make an effective anticipatory action in the sense of harmony with what you think, feel, and desired by others. This ability can improve by training and education or give individual an opportunity to experience something that another person or group has experienced, or if they are asked to imagine such experiences.

2.3.2 Theories of perspective taking

There are many theories in the literature which attempt to give an account of the counstruct of perspective taking skills. Some theories suggest that perspective-taking is the cognitive ability and some other theories regard it contains the cognitive and affective dimensions. As seen in some of the definitions that have been presented perspective taking is a cognitive capacity to consider the world from another individual's viewpoint that allows an individual to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others. In this context, perspective taking is seen as a specific type of cognitive mindset which activates a set of cognitive procedures that are directed to understand the psychological states of other individuals. According to Schroder-Abe & Schutz [38], perspective taking links theoretically to an epistemological development and is considered a higher-order cognitive skill (i.e., associated with complex judgment, critical thinking, and problem-solving particularly useful in novel situations). They assert that as cognitive structures develop, there is a shift in focus from an egocentric embeddedness in his own point of view to a cognitive orientation in which diverse aspects of objects or social situations are simultaneously taken into account.

From a cognitive perspective, the development of perspective taking was studied in the theory of social cognition. According to Steinberg [41] Social cognition is the term used to refer to individual's cognitive activity – thinking about another person, thinking about the social relationship, and thinking about the institution. Steinberg said, adolescent's advanced abilities in thinking about possibilities, thinking in multiple dimensions, and thinking about abstract concept make them more sophisticated to reasoning about social matters. Compared with those of children, adolescent's conceptions of interpersonal relationship are more mature, their understanding of human behavior is more advanced, their ideas about social institution and organizations are more complex, and their ability to figure out what other people thinking and feeling are more accurate. Studi on social cognition, especially during adolescence typically fall into three categories: impression formation, which examine how individuals forms and organize judgments about other people; role taking/perspective taking, which examine how, and how accurately, individual make assessments about the thoughts and feeling of others; and social conventions, which examine individual's conception of justice, social norms, and guidelines for social interaction.

Two theories of social cognition are very often used to explain the development of perspective-taking is the theory of cognitive development of Jean Piaget and Robert Selman's theory on interpersonal understanding. These both theories explicitly describe the concept and development of perspective-taking of children through adolescence period. In addition to the two theories, there is also another theory, the Theory of Mind (ToM) and Relational Frame Theory (RFT) and contemporary theory.

In the theory of cognitive development [Rubenstein, 33] stated that the perspective-taking is a skill that results from the transition from the development of egocentrism and self-centering (centration) which demanded concrete operational thinking abilities. Egocentrism causing the child is unable to differentiating themselves with the social environment, while centralizing himself refers to the inability to understand the multiple features of an event. In Piaget's perspective, perspective-taking began when the child has reached the age of three years and then reach the level of the most mature in adolescence.

ToM relatively early theory that is widely used in research that is practical, which involves the design of intervention programs to improve the perspective-taking in children with autism [Flavel, 10]. This theory provides an explanation of the stages of development of perspective-taking and how to improve the perspective-taking at every stage of the development. According to this theory, perspective-taking evolved through five levels of understanding of the informational need to be mastered by the child when he learns to take the perspective of others, namely: simple visual (level 1), visually complex (level 2), the realization that the knowledge gained from seeing (level 3), true belief (level 4), and false beliefs (level 5). Each stage states a level different perspective taking, the higher the stage, the higher the child's perspective taking. These levels are summarized in the table 1 below.

Tabel 1. The stages of development of perspective-taking in ToM

Level

Category

Description

1

Simple visual

The children must understand that others may have different views on something

2

Complex visual

The children need to know that other people may have different views on the same object

3

Awareness

The children must understand that the knowledge gained by seein

4

True belief

The child needs to know that a person's actions are based on his belief

5

False-belief

The children must understand that a person's actions can be based on the false belief

According to Flavel [10], every stage of the ability of states a different perspective taking, the higher the stage, the higher the child's perspective taking. In the perspective-taking level 1, children must understand that others may have a different view of things. In the perspective-taking level 2, children need to know that other people may have different views on the same object. In the perspective-taking level 3, the child is helped to understand that the knowledge gained by seeing. Perspective-taking level 4 involves the correct belief and predict the actions on the basis of individual knowledge. Perspective-taking level 5 involves a complex informational knowledge. ToM also describes a scenario to enhance the ability of each phase.

Relational Frame Theory (RFT) provides a naturalistic explanation and analytic-functional on cognitive development and language in terms acquisition of relational response (Hayes & Roche, 19]. They provide a description of the RFT in conjunction with the development of perspective-taking that is relational in nature. The development of perspective-taking is supported by the increasing complexity in the ability to respond in accordance with the relation frame. There are three frames deictic relationship that seemed fundamental in the development of perspective taking, namely: "I and you," "here and there," and "now and then." Frame relations emerged in part through customs in answering the questions "What are you doing there?" or "What am I doing here?" Although the form of these questions often same in many contexts, the physical environment can be different. What are the relative consistent of these events is the relational nature of "me vs. you, " here vs. there, "and" now vs. later. " In a series of cognitive development and language, the relational nature are expressed through learning to speak about perspectives in relation to the perspectives of others. For example, I have always come from the perspective here, and not from other people's perspective there.

Selman theory is the most referenced in the study of the development of perspective taking. According to Selman [34] , understand the perspectives of others is a central process of social cognition. In this process, the individual makes inferences about the affective and psychological condition of others without having to declare it explicitly. The process also involves holding his own views in order to actively consider the views of others, for example, imagine something from another person's perspective. Selman theory is also known as the interpersonal understanding theory because perspective taking and interpersonal understanding related both conceptually and practically. Interpersonal understanding is defined as an ability to understand social situations in term some perspectives of the individuals involved in social interaction. In other words, interpersonal understanding is determined by the complexity of perspective taking.

From some research were done extensively, Selman [34] came to the conclusion that perspective-taking began to develop at the age of three years and peaks at age 12 years and over. The development of this ability started from egocentric phase, one person's perspective, the perspective of two people, a third person perspective, and social perspective taking. This development runs to follow the development of age and cognitive ability, although there are always individual variations caused by the experience, guidance, and training. Table 2 below illustrates the stages of development of perspective-taking in Selman's theory.

Tabel 2. the stages of development of perspective-taking in Selman’s theory

Stage/Phase

Ages (Years)

Description

0: Egocentric

3- 6

The children can not distinguish between her perspective and other's perspective. They may acknowledge that he and others have different feelings and thoughts, but did not understand why there is a difference. In many cases, they tend to be impulsive and hope other people have feelings and thoughts as like her.

1: Subjectively

6-8

The children can understand that everyone has a different view because they have different information. They were able to develop a suspicion that another person can change his outlook on a situation if they are given additional information.

2: Self-reflective

8-10

The children can begin to try to think like everyone else and trying to understand the feelings and thoughts of others. They also begin to understand that other people can do the same as like him. This means that a child can explain the situation to other people and change the views of others by providing information or new facts.

3: Mutual

10-12

Preadolescence was able to take a more abstract perspective in relation to others and to coordinate two different perspectives into a shared perspective. In other words, the child can imagine how he and others in the light of the views of third parties.

In a negotiation situation, individual consider various responses alternatives and their consequences, and only actions that have a positive impact that will be done.

4: Social perspective taking

12 and over

At this level, the adolescence understands that a third-party perspective is influenced by the values prevailing in society at large.

Another theory not only emphasizes the cognitive component as a major element in perspective-taking but also affective. According to this model, perspective-taking represents both cognitive and affective dimensions that allow an individual to empathize with another while maintaining the individuality [Galinsky et al., 12]. One of the pioneers in this approach is the Hunter Gehlbach [14; 15]. Gehlbach developed a model framework for perspective-taking which he said is more comprehensive than the models that already exist. Gehlbach call models the existing approaches are more unidimensional because too much emphasis on the cognitive abilities as the sole factor in perspective taking. According to him, to understand other people's perspectives not only involve the cognitive abilities alone but also motivation. Therefore Gehlbach calls the model he were developed as a multidimensional approach. In this model, Gehlbach also calls perspective taking as social perspective taking.

Gehlbach [14] define perspective taking is the process through which a perceiver discerns the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of one or more targets. This ability includes appreciating the point of view of those with different values and trying to understand how others perceive the situation. According to Gehlbach, commonly viewed as the ability to understand people accurately, perspective taking. He also represents that perspective taking is an aptitude that also includes the motivation to employ that ability. In other words, for a successful perspective taking, individual must first be motivated to understand others and then must engage in a process that allows him or her to accurately ascertain the other's mental state. Therefore, important practical implications follow this theoretical is that enhancing individual's perspective taking can occur through improving individual's accuracy or by motivating them to engage in the perspective process more frequently.

Gehlbach [14] did not agree with the approach that conceptualizes unidimensional perspective, taking only as the ability to understand how a situation looks by others and how others react cognitively and emotionally to the situation. In other words, perspective-taking as the ability to put oneself in others and recognize those other people may have a different viewpoint from him. This conceptualization focuses only on ability as a single dimension and does not recognize the propensity dimensions (tendencies for perspective taking). The tendency to taking other's perspective is equivalent to the motivation to take the perspective of others in various situations that can be measured based on the frequency (how often) the subjects attempt to take another person's perspective. While the perspective-taking ability is measured on the basis of how accurately subjects infer the thoughts and feelings of others.

Gehlbach [14] suggested that perspective-taking is a form of proficiency (aptitude) as well as intelligence. As a form of talent, perspective-taking needs to be studied as a process (inputs) and results (product). That is, the perspective-taking needs to be studied as a process that can facilitate the other results. One of the results of other most prominent behavior resulting from the development of perspective-taking ability is a skill to solve the conflict. Likewise, perspective-taking needs to be studied as a result. In addition, personal and situational characteristics that affect the ability and perspective-taking tendencies should also be studied.

2.3.4 Researchs on the influence of perspective taking on the behavior and development

Much research has been done either to investigate the characteristics of perspective-taking itself or to examine the it’s impact on the human behavior. Much of research also have gived a great deal of evidence which supporting the benefit of developing perspective-taking skills to increase positive behavior and decrease negative behavior of the students. In this contexts, we will look the relation of perspective-taking skills to the aspects development of students: peronal and social, academic, and career development.

Several studies have shown the effect of perspective-taking on the personal and social development. For example, a variety of experimental studies conducted with first-year students at various universities in the USA prove that perspective-taking can reduce negative stereotypes [Galinsky & Moskowitz, 12; Gallinsky & Gillian Ku, 13; Weyant,45], improving the behavior altruist, even though the individual is under the risk of getting the threat of social identity and a negative evaluation (Maner et al., 29; Zeng Li, 47), decrease behavioral egocentric [Epley, Caruso, & Bazerman, 7], dealing with the deadlock in negotiations interpersonal [Trotchell et all., 44].

Bengston & Arvidson [2] conducted a longitudinal study involving 209 subjects aged 8-12 years (children and adolescents) and found a positive effect of perspective-taking on the emotional reaction of the subject. In that study, they found that children with perspective-taking low tend to exhibit extreme emotional reaction (either very high or very low), while children with perspective-taking tend to set adaptively emotional reactions. Recent research in the field of social psychology also proves the influence of perspective-taking in dealing with negative emotions toward various forms of diversity such as race, gender, and difference of others forms of social aspects [Calderon, 4].

Roan et al., [34] also suggested a review of the results of a number of perspective-taking research also provides evidence consistent. They reported the results of previous studies that prove the effect of perspective-taking on increased understanding and social harmony, reducing stereotypes, positive attitude toward others or outsiders, moral reasoning, cooperation, altruist behavior, decrease impulsive behavior and aggressive, and facilitate conflict resolution.

Study of perspective-taking is also related to the issue of the development of personal and social responsibility. Based on the studies earlier about the role of perspective-taking on the behavior, experts are members of The Association of American College and University (AAC & U) - raise a commitment to prepare citizens who have personal responsibility and social skills through a program development perspective-taking in college , In concept, personal responsibility and social contains five dimensions, one of which - the fourth dimension - perspective taking. The core of this commitment is that colleges need to create an educational climate on campus that can encourage the development of perspective-taking on students. The commitment comes from the fact the vast diversity in man that must be faced by the students, especially when they would become leaders. Development of perspective-taking is also intended to equip students with the ability to handle global challenges. In this context, perspective-taking is considered as a form of global competence to deal with global challenges.

Debriefing global competence is not only seen as important at the college level, but also to learners at secondary school. As stated by Linck & Salmon [28] in his article entitled "creating a culture of thinking that Cultivate the perspective-taking disposition," which asserts that perspective-taking is becoming increasingly important as society becomes increasingly global. Standard of good society and social consciousness will develop if children are taught to understand the "why" and "how to" become effective change agents of society. Therefore educating global competence presents an important challenge to educators, especially to assist learners in order not rigid in holding their own perspectives and willing to understand the perspectives of others from different contexts. To corroborate their statement, Linc & Salmon cites Mansilla & Jackson [28] which states that educators need to cultivate a tendency to care for and love others and develop the ability to recognize a variety of perspectives. The tendency to willing to acknowledge another person's perspective is a requirement to understand and apply the three other global competence: explore the surroundings, communicate ideas effectively to others from diverse backgrounds, and take action to improve the situation.

The study on perspective-taking is also linked to efforts to improve students' academic achievement participant. Many experts view that perspective-taking can contribute to academic success. For example, Chadwick & Realston [3] asserts that perspective-taking is one of the very important social competencies to support the interaction of the academic process at the school. They also reported some previous research which states that students who have a high perspective-taking will certainly be easier to understand the reading, understanding the written instructions of an assignment or given orally by the teacher, and thus he can complete the tasks correctly. Similarly, students who have high perspective-taking skill will be able to conduct an effective social interaction and avoid conflicts with friends at school, with teachers and with parents or family. Increased social interaction and the absence of conflict between students and the people around him, both at home, at school, or in the wider environment, enabling students to gain a conducive learning climate and energy optimally can use to learn. Stated further that learners who have perspective-taking skill high tend to be able to build a safe school environment and positive, to handle the pressure of the events of learning and life, find the best ways to handle frustration and aggression, build personal responsibility for building a safe and positive school environment for learning.

Some research also shows the effect of perspective-taking on career development. One form of a career that many pursued is to become an effective leader. Perspective taking a major contribution to the effective leadership. For example, Calderon [3] asserts that in order to be an effective leader we must be able to learn from other people's perspectives. From his experience, Caderon gained an understanding that a person's ability to take the perspective of others affect his ability to participate in society, and in that way, he would have access to power. Exemplified, Barrack Obama could be a successful leader because of its ability to take the perspective of others, in particular with whom he worked.

An effective leader must be able to build cooperation, dealing with conflict, and build up the negotiation. All the qualities that are characteristic of individuals with high-taking perspective. experimental studies show that perspective taking can be a powerful tool to overcome cognitive barriers in negotiations, such as anchor effects (Galinsky & Wang, 12] and the self-serving fairness bias [Dugan et., al. , 6]. In a recent study, Galinsky & Wang [12] demonstrated that perspective taking as a trait variable or as an induced mindset helped negotiators to solve a seemingly intractable conflict via the integrative strategy of "expanding the pie" (i.e., create win–win solutions by means of adding resources to the negotiation). The other experiment demonstrated that negotiators who took their counterpart's perspective both increased their individual outcomes and succeeded to create more value for the counterpart in an integrative negotiation task.

Perspective-taking may offer an explanatory power in understanding the developmental interactions across leadership domains. The broader leadership studies literature also hypothesizes that perspective taking as an essential component of leadership [Ames, 1; Galinsky & Wang, 12] and as a factor in the development of leadership-related skills [Dugan, 6; Galinsky, Ku, & Wang, 12]. The ability to recognize other's perspectives and infer their thoughts and feelings is congruent with emphases in contemporary leadership theory on self-awareness, other-directedness, and process orientations. Gehlbach and Brinkworth [14] hypothesized that perspective taking may specifically assist positional leaders in anticipating the preferred leadership styles of followers. Ability to take other's perspective enabling individual to understanding of self in the context of others [Galinsky et al., 12]. Understanding oneself in relation to others augments the ability to foster social bonds and decreases in-group favoritism enhancing one's overall capacity to engage effectively in group processes.

Based on the belief that perspective-taking affects the effectiveness of the leadership, the many proposals that address the need for schools to design and implement a program for the development of perspective taking students to prepare these students to become effective leaders in the future. For example, Steen & Vander Veen [42] asserts that the students in the school need training perspective-taking even if necessary the training was used as part of a school program in order to establish competent leaders in changing the world. In fact, many experts in the United States recognizes that the development of perspective-taking in educational institutions is now felt to be urgent and important needs.

DISCUSSION

From what has been stated in the literature review can be concluded that the goal of school guidance and counseling services is to help students to achieve optimal development in the thre aspects: personal-social, academic, and career. School counselors can develop a variety of strategies to achieve that goal. This goal is divided into the four areas of development: personal, social, academic, and career. In other words, the optimal development can be achieved through the attainment of optimal development in the aspect of personal, social, and career academic. Optimal development of the four fields can be achieved if students do not encounter obstacles in the development, in the sense that each student can meet the needs of the four aspects of development.

In accordance with individual nature as social beings which states that every human being can not live alone, then to be able to successfully meet his or her needs, individuals have to be able to build mutually satisfying social relationships with others. By interacting with other people, then people more easily meet the needs or achieve their goals because other people can provide and become resources that can be used or empowered by individuals to achieve the goal. In order to build social relationships mutually satisfactory with others, individuals need to master social skills. Social skills contain many forms, one of which is the ability to take another person's perspective.

As has been stated in the study of the literatures, the ability to take another person's perspective is a social competence allows individuals easier to build social interaction and achieve goals. Judging from the therapeutic value of perspective taking, the contribution of these capabilities in supporting individual success in building social interactions is rooted of this ability allows the individual is able to: (1) understand the mental state of others, that is what others think, feel, and want toward a situations, objects, or events; (2) accept and appreciate the opinions, feelings, attitude and motivations of others; (3) predict what will be said or done by others; and (4) establish an effective anticipatory response that corresponds to the mental condition of another person so there is no conflict.

A number of studies as has been presented in the literature review has also provided empirical evidence about the effect of perspective-taking on the individual's success in achieving personal development, social, academic, and career. Individuals with perspective-taking high were more likely to achieve optimal development because: the individual with high perspective-taking more capable in dealing with diversity, conflict, foster collaboration, persuade and organize others, to understand the messages conveyed through symbols and images, to understand the intentions of others , empathy, and interest in other people, altruism, have a positive thinking about others, and respect for others. In short, the individual with high perspective-taking is more likely to form an effective response and gain support from others. Individuals with higher perspective-taking more likely to use their time and energy to doing positive things that support the growth of themselves and avoid doing negative things that hurt him.

Based on the therapeutic value in the perspective taking, then it can not be denied if these ability needs are used as a material in school guidance and counseling services. In other words, the developing of perspective-taking for students in schools is important because this capability can provide a crucial contribution to the optimal development of each student.

Developing of student's perspective-taking can be used as guidance or psychoeducation material on curriculum guidance/basic services as well as a strategic approach to help learners deal with the difficulties. If used as a material in basic services, the developing of student's perspective-taking can be structured through activities of the group or classical guidance. The purpose of this program is preventive, that is prevent learners from the possibility of experiencing various difficulties. In particular, the program aims to help students avoid the habit of cheating, plagiarizing, impose their will through acts of violence and aggression, as well as facilitating learners to be successful in meeting the needs in the areas of academic, personal, social and career.

Developing of student's perspective-taking can also be used as an alternative in a responsive service to help people deal with various difficulties. Individuals who have already experienced the problems of academic (eg, low achievement, running away, indisplinner, low motivation to learn, and cheating addiction), personal problems (negative self-concept, low self-esteem, don't assertive, withdraw, and abusing drugs), social issues ( lack of social responsibility, often commit acts of violence or social aggression), career problems (can not make decisions of life or career choices), all of them can be helped by increasing the student's perspective-taking.

Development of perspective-taking can also be used as an alternative in a responsive service to help people deal with various difficulties or problems. Individuals who have already experienced the problems of academic (eg, low learning achievement, are often absent from school, low learning motivation, and addiction cheating), personal problems (negative self-concept, low self-esteem, assertive, withdraw, and abusing drugs), social issues (lack of social responsibility, often commit acts of violence or social aggression), career problems (can not make decisions of life or career choices), all of them can be helped by increasing the ability of perspective-taking students. These problems are linked to failures in building relationships with other people, or being the continuing impact of the inability to communicate effectively with others.

Based on this study, it can be submitted a working hypothesis as follows: that the developing of student's perspective taking will enable students to have high social competency and this competency will lead they to be easier in building the social relationships with others, deal with obstacles in development, and eventually achieve optimal levels of development in the aspect of personal, social, academic, and career.

CONCLUSION

The goal of school guidance and counseling program is to help each students to achieve optimal development. Developing of student's perspective-taking can be used as a kind of strategy of school guidance and counseling to foster student's development. This strategy have a potential values to encourage students to achieve success in meeting their needs and achieve the developmental tasks of academic, personal, social and career. Developing of student's perspective taking will enhance the social competencies of students. Inherent in perspective taking are many significant interpersonal values, including respect for different realities, appreciation for individual differences, objectivity, flexibility, tolerance of ambiguity, and nonjudgmental attitude. Perspective-taking skills is positively correlated with the ability of conflict resolution, psychological healthy, prosocial behavior, organizational behavior, individual development, academic performance, and negatively correlation with various kind of psychosocial problems especially aggression or violence. Perspective taking skills also plays a fundamental role in the development, in the sense that human development in various domains (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) goes forward in accordance with the individual's ability to take another person's perspective. Therefore individual with high perspective-taking tend to more easily meet their needs and then attain optimum development rather than individual with poor perspective taking ability. Then, developing perspective taking skills among students will prevent they to forming negative behaviors and encourage success in various of development task and life, i.e.: personal, social, academic, and career. Developing perspective taking skills will have a positive impact on the ability of learners to satisfy their needs and finally achieve optimum development. Developing the perspective taking skill is not a futile effort because this ability is a potential that can be learned. This ability can be developed through experience, guidance, and training. Based on the positive value in the perspective taking and its impact on development, school counselor need to incorporates the program of developing perspective taking into the program os school guidance and counseling to optimize the student’s development. Finally, developing perspective-taking in the context of school guidance and counseling services can be used as one of the materials integrated into guidance curriculum, or be used as an alternative strategy in a responsive service to help students deal with various difficulties. In the current, this program is considered to be a potential intervention alternative strategy cause the efforts of guidance at this time is still less than satisfactory.

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